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Ambassador report

Ambassador report

[Ambassador report] An Assignment on DPSIR analysis of causes of deforestation and forest degradation of SFD project at sagarnath village.

by Sandhya Adhikari | 20-11-2019 13:13 Comments 14 Comments recommendations 0 recommendations

Our Agroecology professor has given us an assignment to write on any of the issue  in our locality so that we can have a close observation and analysis of the subject matter related to our environment and ecosystem. So for my assignment, I was just thinking which issue I had to choose and start to pen then a thought and my sight went to my one Village where deforestation and degradation is increasing in an alarming rate so I penned an assignment on topic on Analysis of cause of deforestation and forest degradation of Sagarnath Forest Development Project of Sagarnath village by DPSIR framework.

This is my assignment but I choose to post it on this page because still many of you are unknown about the fact that what actually is DPSIR and my one motto to post this report on this page is also to make all of you aware about the concept of DPSIR and let you all know about cause of the deforestation on one of the largest euclyaptus Forest of BHABAR terai of Nepal.

Forest has a portentous role in many aspect. Forest are the backbone of the life forms, home to thousands of species, a complex ecosystem consisting mainly of trees that adjust many forms of life supporting huge genetics and  biotic diversity. Forest has key role in maintaining the ecological balance, forming the base of food chain and pyramid, regulating biogeochemical cycle, climate regulation and nutrient recycling. Forest plays a role in carbon sequestration, which has been estimated that standing forest sequester about 20% of global Carbondioxide emission. In the context of this era, deforestation and forest degradation has been considered as substantial global environment challenge. Here the study was conducted to analysis cause of deforestation and forest degradation of Sagarnath Forest Development Project at Sagarnath village using DPSIR framework. Detail study of the area was carried out by a set of questionnaire to the local people, some officers working on Sagarnath Forest Development Project as well as detail review of relevant and existing literature about the area was done and field observation was also done. This study discloses that main causes of deforestation and forest  degradation in Sagarnath Forest Development Project are population growth, subsistence agricultural expansion encroaching forestland, overgrazing of cattle, forest encroachment, illegal harvesting of forest resources or perverse incentives related to illegal timber harvesting, developmental activities, forest fire, natural calamities, lack of good governance and ambiguous policy which is causing a deteriorating consequences on global repercussions, environment resulting into the climate change, fuel scarcity, reduced supply of fodder, leaf litter manure, unpredicted rainfall, lowland flooding etc. Several attempts have been made so far to control the deforestation and mixed success has been achieved. Local government is also enforcing a strict law and making policies for controlling deforestation, various schools, NGOs are working and conducting  afforestation programme in Sagarnath The abbreviation DPSIR stands for a conceptual framework for the description of the environmental problem and of their relationship with the socio economic domain in the policy meaningful way developed by the European Environmental Agency (EEA) which is based on the PSR (Pressure-State-Response) model proposed by the OECO and it has been applied to the organization of systems of indicators and statistics in relation to policy aims (e.g. EEA, EUROSTAT). According to the terminology if DPSIR, social and economic developments ( Driving Forces, D) exerts pressure (P) on the environment and at a consequence, the state (S) of the environment changes. This leads to Impact (I) on ecosystem, health and society which may elicit a societal response (R) i.e prioritization, target setting, indication that feed back on Driving Forces, on State or on Impact via various mitigation, adaptation or curative actions (Smeets and ,Weterings, 1999: Gabreielsen and Bosc, 2003). Thus the DPSIR is described as a “Casual framework for describing the interactions between society and the environment” (EEA, 2006a). So here I have chosen to analysis the deforestation and forest degradation of Sagarnath Forest Development Project at Sagarnath Village of Sarlahi district by DPSIR Framework. I have mainly diverted and focused my study on the condition of forest at present, past, causes of forest degradation and deforestation, its impact and consequences on environment along with its effect on the quality of life of people.

Sagarnath Forest Development Project is a unique pioneer forest management operation involving for the first time in the Bhabar Terai of Nepal covering 6 municipality and some rural municipality which is one management team in large scale harvesting and the scale of natural forest products, and the artificial regeneration of the site to a fast growing and high yielding wood crop. It is an important plantation forest are of Nepal run by Forest Product Development Board from 1977, sustainable Forest management plan for 10 years with a main motto to identify the strategies and activities, carry out Environmental Impact Assessment of the plan.Time with some reluctance has seen the downgrading of long known, high valued species as Sisoo and  teak, economically unsuited to 90%  of the project site, with exotic large scale Eucalyptus plantation in which government allocated funds for 1000 ha plantation at Sagarnath of which 60% was planted with Eucalyptus. But now the situation has fallen so drastically, there is 60% destruction of this Deforestation and forest degradation are one of the major problems that not only the Sagarnath Forest is facing but the world is facing. The sustainability of forest ecosystem requires careful management, efficient utilization and effective protection measures against deforestation and forest degradation (FAO, 2009). Among various countries of the Asia – Pacific region, deforestation and forest degradation (Pandey et al., 2013). Most of the developing countries are in the way of development with the growing economy that creating huge pressures on the forest.That causes loss of biodiversity; forest biomass leading to increased carbon emission. Global emission for deforestation and forest degradation alone contribute between 20 and 25% of all greenhouse gas emissions (Sedjo & Sohngen, 2007).The forest has come up in topic over the years, not for its majestic beauty but for what has been occurring there, the removal and replanting of its prime sources; the trees (Falla, 2014). Deforestation refers to complete loss of forest cover. Forest degradation relates to loss of biomass (carbon) and reduction in the capacity of forests to produce ecosystem services (WWF, 2013). The types of drivers of deforestation and forest degradation have great influence on the forest carbon impacts and the choice of data sources and methods used to measure and monitor them (Kissinger et al., 2012). For the most part, forest degradation in Nepal takes place as a precursor to deforestation (UNDP, 2014). Recently, the study carried out by Forest Resource Assessment revealed that 16400 ha of Terai forest has been shrinks in the decade (2001-2010) the rate of 0.44% annually (FRA/DFRS, 2014). The-location-of-the-study-site-in-Sagarnath-Forestry-Development-Project-Nepal.png  Figure 1- uploaded by Anil Raj Kizha.



The site has been studied and the information was analysed in the form of DPSIR framework. The components of DPSIR framework are defined in the following.


Driving forces:


They are sometimes referred to as driving forces and refer to fundamental processes in society, which drive activities having a direct impact on the environment.

The Driving force for the forest degradation and deforestation are:


Ø  Population Growth

Ø  Subsistence Agricultural Expansion encroaching Forestland

Ø  Perverse incentives related to illegal timber, forest fuel harvesting

Ø  Overgrazing of cattle

Ø  Natural Hazard and forest fire

Ø  Lack of effective implementation of forest policies

Ø  Due to political instability






Pressures are the human activities that directly affect the system and are generated by the driving forces. The pressure on the forest are:


Ø  Forest encroachment

Ø  Infrastructural Development i.e road construction, channel construction and school construction

Ø  Urbanization

Ø  Illegal and unsustainable harvesting practices

Ø  Migration either from the hill area or free boarder India migration

Ø  Forest dependent industries i.e saw mills, brick, furniture industries etc

Ø  Over grazing of animals

Ø  Encroachment by labor and expansion of free settlement area



State is the condition of the system at a specific time and is represented by a set of descriptors of system attributes that are affected by pressures and the type, degree and rate of land degradation. As a result of pressures, the ‘state’ of the environment is affected; that is, the quality of the various environmental compartments (air, water, soil, etc.) in relation to the functions that these compartments fulfill. The ‘state of the environment’ is thus the combination of the physical, chemical and biological conditions. At this specific time period the state of forest are:


Ø  Loss and decrease  in the biodiversity

Ø  Decrease in forest area and cover


Forest is degrading at alarming rate still the government is not paying any attention for the protection of this forest.




The changes in the physical, chemical or biological state of the environment determine the quality of ecosystems and the welfare of human beings. In other words changes in the state may have environmental or economic ‘impacts’ on the functioning of ecosystems, their life supporting abilities, and ultimately on human health and on the economic and social performance of society.


Impact related to the degradation and deforestation of forest are:


Ø  Destruction in the forest quality

Ø  Habitat loss

Ø  Loss of forest ecosystem function and services

Ø  Human wildlife conflicts

Ø  Change and alternation on forest constituent

Ø  Degradation of forest and agriculture land area

Ø  Ecosystem loss

All these impact may be positive or negative for the existing situation.



A ‘response’ by society or policy makers is the result of an undesired impact and can affect any part of the chain between driving forces and impacts. An example of a response related are:


Ø  Rules, regulation and policy for Bhabar forest conservation policies

Ø  Handover of forest to communities

Ø  Alternate energy promotion

Ø  Awareness, trainings and education about NTFPs management training, forest management training, nursery management monitoring unit

Ø  Wildlife conservation and anti-poaching unit

Ø  Private forest encouragement program, forest management, plantation and forest restoration

Ø  Training and skill enhancement programs

Ø  Income generating activities and employment opportunit

The present study had clearly portrait that population growth, high dependency on forest products, traditional occupation, policy failure are the major causes of Deforestation & land Degradation in Sagarnath village. Forest encroachment is linked with many drivers and pressure itself, forest is being encroached for expansion of agriculture land. Illegal logging and unsustainable harvesting for forest resources like fuel wood, timber, NTFPs and other medicinal plants are also playing major role, others are infrastructural development, faulty policies etc. Forest areas are slowly decreasing and in degrading condition, Forest area is transforming into barren land, soil structure had been changed, excessive destruction of biodiversity, wildlife destruction, forest area turning into shrub land etc are the major impacts caused due to the deforestation and land degradation.

To sum up in order to address these effect, impact and consequences those policies should be enforced so strictly and various eco friendly awareness should be carried out


1. Anonymous: http://ggnepal.org.np/projects/preparation-of-sustainable-forest-management-plan-of-sagarnath-forest-development-project-and-environmental-impact-assessment-2018/)

2. Modeling Height-Diameter Relationship and Volume of Teak (Tectona grandis L. F.) in Central Lowlands of Nepal - Scientific Figure on ResearchGate. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/The-location-of-the-study-site-in-Sagarnath-Forestry-Development-Project-Nepal_fig1_318780019 [accessed 9 Nov, 2019]

3. Goll II, N. B., Li, J., McKay, J., & John, S. (2014, March). Analysis on the Causes of Deforestation and Forest Degradation In Liberia: Application of the DPSIR Framework.

4. FRA/DFRS. (2014). Churia Forests of Nepal. Forest Resource Assessment Nepal, Department of Forest Research and Survey .Babarmahal, Kathmandu: Department of Forest Research and survey.

5. WWF. (2013). Drivers of Deforestation and Forest Degradation

Chitwan - Annapurna Landscape. WWF Nepal, HariyoBan program.


6. UNDP. (2014). Area of forest under sustainable management: Deforestation and degradation Retrived from http://www.bipindicators. net/forestdegradation. Biodiversity indicators partnership.

7. European Environment Agency (EEA) (2007) Halting the loss of biodiversity by 2010: proposal for a first set of indicators to monitor progress in Europe, EEA Technical Report no. 11/2007, European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.






Hema  Sapkota

  • Hema Sapkota says :
    Greetings Sandhya
    I hope you are doing well

    Thank you so much for this report.
    I hope yo read more from you
    Keep writing
    Green cheers!
    Posted 18-03-2020 11:39

Ishma Gurung

  • Ishma Gurung says :
    Greetings sandhya
    I hope you are doing well

    Thank you so much for this great report
    I hope to read more from you!

    Green cheers
    Posted 17-03-2020 12:17

Basanta Adhikari

  • Basanta Adhikari says :
    Greeting sandhya
    I hope you are doing well

    Thank you so much for this report.
    I hope to read more from you.
    Keep up with great works
    Green cheers
    Posted 16-03-2020 03:54

Ganesh Kharel

  • Ganesh Kharel says :
    Hello sandhya dd
    Thank you so much for such informative report.
    Ganesh Kharel
    Posted 07-03-2020 22:08

Horticulturist Susmita

  • Horticulturist Susmita says :
    Hello susmita
    I hope you are doing well

    Thank you so much for this report.
    Posted 29-02-2020 21:09

Susmita Horticulturist

  • Susmita Horticulturist says :
    Hello sandhya
    Very nice
    Thank you so much for this report
    Posted 26-02-2020 21:41

Bal krishna Pandey

  • Bal krishna Pandey says :
    Greetings sandhya baini:)))

    I hope you are doing well
    Thank you so much for this report

    I hope to read more reports from you
    Green cheers
    bal krishna pandey
    Posted 29-01-2020 16:14

Asmita Gaire

  • Asmita Gaire says :
    Greetings sandhya sis
    I hope you are doing well
    Thank you so much for this report
    It's entirely written in detail
    Green cheers
    Asmita Gaire
    Posted 29-01-2020 01:16

Sandhya Adhikari

Sandhya Adhikari

Pooja Gyawali

  • Pooja Gyawali says :
    Well done Sandhya!!!
    Go ahead with these great report
    Best wishes
    Green cheers
    Posted 26-11-2019 13:28

Kushal Naharki

  • Kushal Naharki says :
    Hello Sandhya

    I do hope that you are fine and doing great with your works.
    Thank you for your report about An Assignment on DPSIR analysis of causes of deforestation and forest degradation of SFD project at sagarnath village.

    Green Cheers from Nepal :)
    Keep writing great reports.
    We are eager to read more reports from you.

    Kushal Naharki

    Posted 26-11-2019 01:02

Sandhya Adhikari

  • Sandhya Adhikari says :
    Hello Hyeongmin Mentor,
    Greeting from Nepal,
    thank you so much for such an wonderful words .
    Keep supporting us ever mentor,
    Posted 26-11-2019 00:06

Hyeongmin Mentor

  • Hyeongmin Mentor says :
    Hello Sandhya

    This is such a detailed report about reforestation. I could learn a lot from your report including some terminologies that are new to me and some detailed aspects behind the accelerating deforestation.
    I think that those people that are causing deforestation are not aware of the importance of the forests. Those huge forests and trees just seem to be there all the time without doing anything, but they as many people should know about the huge role it plays to the earth and unimaginable effect that will be cause from the destruction of the forests. I hope some collective actions from governments, industries and citizens can result in the complete preservation of the forests.

    Thank you for the informative report.

    Keep up the great work.
    Posted 21-11-2019 23:01

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