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Ambassador report

[Ambassador report] The Marine Diversity Of India

by Chitwan C | 22-11-2019 02:43 Comments 3 Comments recommendations 0 recommendations

The ecosystem consisting a group of interacting organisms dependent on each other and their water environments for nutrients and shelter is called an aquatic ecosystem. A type of aquatic ecosystem is known as marine ecosystem. It forms the largest part of this ecosystem. These systems include oceans, salt marshes, lagoons, coral reefs, the dep sea, etc. and have high salt content. The importance of marine biodiversity can be visualized from the fact that the sea waters cover about 71% of the Earth's surface and account for 99% of volume that is known to sustain life. [1]


The Indian ocean, Bay of Bengal, etc., form the marine ecosystems for India. In the coastal areas, the sea is shallow whereas at other places, it is very deep. There are invertebrates and millions of zooplanktons eaten by marine fishes and mammals. Near Kutch region, there are shallow areas. It is also found around Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Coral reefs are also found here. Fishes, starfish, jelly fish, crustaceans and polyps are a few of thousands of species found in these shallow areas. Coastal fisherfolk use this ecosystem for fishing, which is their livelihood. 


The coastal waters along the East and West Coast of the country and also around the two island groups have a plethora of marine species. The marine floral diversity includes 844 species of marine alga (sea weeds) belonging to 217 genera, 14 species of sea grasses and 69 species of mangroves. India’s marine fauna also holds a massive amount of diversity. The coastal waters of India harbour 451 species of sponges, more than 200 species of corals, more than 2900 species of crustacean, 3370 species of marine mollusks, more than 200 species of bryozoans, 765 species of echinoderm, 47 species of tunicates, more than 1300 marine fishes, 26 species of sea snakes, 5 species of sea turtles and 30 species of marine mammals including dugong, dolphins, whales etc. Additionally, an extensive diversity of sea birds can also be seen in India around its coast. [2]


There are mainly three types of coral reef formations-fringing reefs, barrier reefs and atolls. In India, all three types occur. Fringing reefs are found in Gulf of Mannar, Gulf of Kachchh and Andaman & Nicobar Islands. Barrier reefs are reported on the western side of Andaman group of Islands and atoll formations are common in Lakshadweep islands. A total of 199 species of corals belonging to 71 genera are recorded from Indian Ocean. A subsequent survey in Andaman group of islands by a team of UNDP and Indian experts in 2000-01 has indicated occurrence of more than 200 species of corals in Andaman islands alone. The total number of coral species if surveyed and identified properly may increase further. Coral reefs are among the most dynamic and productive ecosystems of the world. They prevent coastal erosion, act as primary producer and are important breeding and nursery ground for shell fish. They provide shelter to juvenile fish and larvae of many organisms. They also provide sustenance and employment to people living around.


India’s beautiful diversity in marine life is a huge boon to the country. It contributes to tourism, provides jobs, pushes exports of marine goods, thereby benefitting the economy in so many ways. It is thus, our righteous duty, to preserve and propel ways that enrich the marine ecosystem all around the globe. 


[1] http://www.upsbdb.org/pdf/Souvenir2012/ch-14.pdf

 [2] https://www.omicsonline.org/conference-proceedings/marine-science-oceanography-2018-posters-abstracts.digital/files/assets/basic-html/page-15.html


marine life


Lisa Mentor

  • Lisa Mentor says :
    Hey Chitwan,
    it's Lisa once again.

    Thanks for sharing the story of your country!
    I think the great thing about having ambassadors from the different cultural backgrounds is that we get to hear stories about the same topic in many different perspectives! I personally did not know that India had such a rich marine life! Though while reading, I was kind of expecting some nice photos of that rich underwater ecosystem, I think your report was interesting itself:) Yet, it would be even better if you could add some nice pictures that match your report!

    Thanks for your report and green cheers!

    Posted 26-11-2019 15:45

Kushal Naharki

  • Kushal Naharki says :
    Hello Chitwan

    I do hope that you are fine and doing great with your works.
    Thank you for your report about The Marine Diversity Of India

    Green Cheers from Nepal :)
    Keep writing great reports.
    We are eager to read more reports from you.

    Kushal Naharki

    Posted 26-11-2019 00:54

Hyeongmin Mentor

  • Hyeongmin Mentor says :
    Hello Chitwan

    Thank you for the detailed explanation about the marine ecosystem of India. Thinking about the huge size of the country and by reading you report, there is no doubt about the diversity in the marine environment. I can't imagine about the number of ways people in India interact with the ocean. In that sense, consistent effort to keep that precious marine ecosystem should continue. I hope for almost perfect preservation of the region.

    Thank you again for the great report!
    Posted 25-11-2019 22:31

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