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[September Thematic Report] Energy Security

by David Kalayi | 20-09-2023 23:26



Energy Security is defined according to the International Energy Agency (IEA) as the uninterrupted availability of energy source at an affordable price.

Energy was created by Thomas Young; he first introduced the word ¡®energy¡¯ to the field of physics in 1800, but the word did not gain popularity. Young later established the wave nature through interference experiment.

Types of Energy Security

¡¤       Oil Security

The system focuses on alleviating short-term supply disruptions either by increasing supply. E.g. implementing demand restraint measures.

¡¤       Natural Gas Security

Natural gas is a strategic asset for the United States. Abundant energy sources like natural gas benefit American national security by making it less dependent on foreign sources of energy.

¡¤       Electricity Security

The IEA defines electricity security as the electricity system¡¯s capability to ensure uninterrupted availability of electricity by withstanding and recovering from disturbances and contingencies.

Some Source of Energy

¡¤       Nuclear Energy, is a form of energy released from the nucleus, the core of atom, made up of protons and neutrons.

¡¤       Fossil Fuel, is made from decomposing plants and animals. These fuels are found in earth crust and contain carbon and hydrogen, which can be burned for energy. Examples of fossil fuel are coal, oil, natural gas.

¡¤       Renewable Sources, are natural resources which will replenish to replace the portion depleted by usage and consumption, either through natural reproduction or other recurring processes in a finite amount of time in human time scale.

There are four main aspect of energy security. These are,

¡¤       Availability

¡¤       Accessibility

¡¤       Affordability

¡¤       Reliability

Factors Affecting Energy Security

First of all is, political stability.

The political stability of a country is linked with the sustainability of its economic development, which is closely related to the reliability of access to energy resources. This implies that access to stable sources of energy is one prerequisite for state stability.

Secondly, economic growth.

 As the world economy and people grow, so will the world¡¯s need for energy. As a results to this, more industries, factories and the household also increase which will request for more supply of energy.

Furthermore, energy conservation.

By reducing overall energy demand, efficiency can reduce reliance on imports of oil, gas and coal. Energy efficiency can therefore play a crucial role in ensuring both short and long-term energy security in a cost-effective manner.

To throw more light on Ghana¡¯s energy security, I would like to emphasis on the energy source of Ghana. Ghana has three main sources of energy.

Gas represents the largest source of electricity production followed by hydropower and solar energy.

Nigeria exports gas to Ghana through pipelines from east to west.

Jubilee, Offshore Cape Three Points (OCTP) and Twenebo Enyenra Ntomme (TEN) are Ghana¡¯s main gas producing field. Together, they produced over 204 billion standard cubic feet of natural gas in 2021 [IEA 25 Jan 2023]

Hydropower, when it comes to hydropower Ghana has three large hydroelectric dams, Akosombo, Kpong and Bui, of which Akosombo dam was built in 1965.

The projected hydro-electric power generation in Ghana stood at slightly over 7,000 gigawatt hours as of 2021. [Hydropower generation Ghana 2019-2021]

Solar energy, in Ghana, solar energy installation contributes 90% of all renewable energy installation according to a study by Gyamfi et al.

As a result of recent growth, Ghana¡¯s installed solar energy capacity increased to 108MW in 2021 from 3MW in 2013.

Energy Consumption in Ghana

In 2021, the average annual electricity consumption for a U.S residential utility customer was 10,632 kilo watthours (kWh), an average of about 886 kWh per month. 12 Oct 2022.

Ghana also exports power to Togo, Benin and Burkina Faso. Ongoing expansions would allow further exports to other neighboring countries in the sub region and these exports contributes to the consumption.

How to ensure energy demand in Ghana

By reducing overall energy demand, efficiency can reduce reliance on imports of gas, oil and coal. Energy efficiency can therefore play cruel role in ensuring both long-and short-term energy security in cost-effective manner.