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Reducing Emission from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD)

by Dhiroj Prasad Koirala | 08-03-2013 09:50 recommendations 0 recommendations

 The ongoing climate negotiations are actively considering REDD as a means of mitigating global climate change by preserving and sequestering carbon in forests. REDD is primarily about reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions as an element of a comprehensive approach mandated by the Bali action plan. As CDM failed to reduce emissions from deforestation in non industrialized countries, there is a strong move to find ways to reduce CO2 emissions from terrestrial ecosystems by reducing the deforestation rates. Under a policy called "Reduce emissions from deforestation" (RED), several approach have been developed and are being discussed by the parties. This is quite different from the existing CDM approach. CDM approach project levels, whereas the proposed new approach under RED is country -wide and use past deforestation rates as the baseline so that leakages are also accounted for. The proposed mechanism started with:

v  RED: Reducing emissions from deforestation , then moving  to :

v  REDD: Readucing emission from deforestation and forest degradation, and finally

v   REDD+: Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, plus forest enhancement.


REDD recognizes the historical role that developed countries have played in causing climate change, as well as their higher level of resources for pursuing the mitigation of GHGs. As there are many stakeholders in REDD process, a lot of interest has been generated about the architecture of this mechanism. In Nepal's case, some of the key stakeholders are the community forests, indigenous and local communities, the local and central governments, and the civil society at large.

International negotiation on REDD have been underway and have taken a few strides in 2009, with numerous inter sessional that were held between the UNFCCC's annual conference of parties (COP) meeting. We can anticipate this mechanism to come into force only after 2012, that is, after the first commitment period of KP is over. As the level of preparedness is low, some countries will need some extra time after 2012 to build the necessary capacity to implement such a mechanism. However, they should do whatever they can now to prepare for REDD, with support from Donor organization.

REDD has morphed into REDD +, with the plus indicating carbon stock enhancement, right of community people, biodiversity conservation, livelihood benefits and other associated social capitals particularly in the context of  community and  participatory forestry. A REDD mechanism alone, without its "+" component, may not be adequate to reward those community forest users groups who have significantly contributed not only to revitalize the degraded forest but also reduce poverty through conservation. Therefore, Nepal advocates for REDD+ mechanism to obtain benefits from the evolving REDD mechanism so as to ensure that the benefits goes to the historically good doing communities in conservation.

Fortunately, Nepal is the first among the developing countries which have been selected by the World Bank as a member of the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF), an innovative approach to financing efforts to combat climate change. Nepal will receive initial funding from FCPF to reduce deforestation and forest degradation by compensating developing countries for greenhouse gas emission reductions. The partnership, approved by the World Bank Board of Executive Directors on September 25, 2007, became functionally operational on june 25, 2008. The grant money being provided to the first 14 developing nations in the FCPF will help them to prepare  for future system of positive incentives for REDD, in particular by establishing emission reference levels, adopting REDD strategies, and designing monitoring systems.

 The WB, through this FCPF program, has provided USD 200,000 for REDD 'readiness'. This fund has been provided under the expectation that it will help to improve the capacity of necessary institutions to implement a REDD framework in the days to come. The ministry of forest and soil conservation has established a REDD forestry and climate change Cell to oversee this task. A working group has been formed to implement these activities. In this forum, suggestions from the civil society and concerned stakeholders are given due to their  importance. The REDD working Group has been focused on forming the readiness Plan under the World Bank's FCPF initiatives.