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Efforts of Nepal in addressing Climate Change

by | 28-10-2015 11:10 recommendations 0

Climate Change and Nepal's status

As Conference of Parties (COP 21) is knocking the global door, we can see the commitments and reluctance as well of different parties for climate action. Nepal is one of the LDCs, as defined by the United Nations in terms of its low national income, less developed human capacity and a high degree of economic vulnerability (UNOHRLLS 2011). Nepal ratified the UNFCCC in 1994 and entered into force the same year. Nepal signed, ratified and entry into force of Kyoto Protocol in 2005. National Climate Change Policy, 2011 is only flagship legislation for changing climate till now. Nepal's contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions is negligible only at 32 Mt C02e in 2010, which is less than 0.1% of global emissions. With current policies, the emissions growth is projected to accelerate to 2.4% per year, on average, in the period 2010- 2030, reaching 52 MT CO2e in 2030 (World Resources Institute). The majority of emissions in Nepal are non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions from the agriculture sector. Methane and nitrous oxide contributed 70% to total greenhouse gas emissions in 2010, arising from rice cultivation, enteric fermentation and agricultural soils (USEPA 2012). Nepal is ranked as 4th most vulnerable countries to effect of climate change (Climate Change Vulnerability Index 2011).

Efforts in Nepal to fight climate change

Climate Change issue has been addressed to some extent by the 2001 Millennium Development Goals Initiatives and the 2003 Sustainable Development Agenda for Nepal. Interim constitution 2007 addressed climate change and provision of right of every citizen to food security and to live in a clean environment. An instable and volatile political circumstance has added a challenge to address climate change issues. Till date Nepal has not made any concrete commitments to reduce emissions. In 2010, National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA) approved. NAPA developed as a requirement under the UNFCCC to access funding for the most urgent and immediate adaptation needs from the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF).

Nepal Climate Change Knowledge Management Center (NCCKMC) and Multi-sectoral Climate Change Initiatives Coordination Committee (MCCICC) were constituted by government in coordination with other related national institutions to facilitate in NAPA execution and ensure regular dialogue and consultations in the field of climate change. For effective implementation of NAPA, National Framework on Local Adaptation Plan for Action (LAPA) consisting of seven steps was formulated and piloted in 10 districts of Nepal in 2010. The four guiding principles of LAPA ensure the adaptation and resilience to climate change as bottom-up, inclusive, responsive and flexible in national and local planning.


In October 2009 Nepal became a member of UN REDD program. In July 2010, the REDD Readiness Preparation Proposal (R- PP) was assessed and a revised R-PP was then submitted to the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) of the World Bank in October 2010. REDD Cell is an executive body established in 2009 by Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation (MoFSC) responsible for coordinating the REDD readiness process and other REDD projects in Nepal. The climate budget code was introduced by Government of Nepal in the annual budget of 2011/12 the budget code was integral part of the budget of fiscal year 2013/014. Climate change budget code is an innovation technique to track climate financing in national budget. According to ?Nepal Climate Change Budget Code Application Review 2013?, the allocated amount in 2012/13 and 2013/14 were 1.6% and 3.1% of GDP respectively.

One of the objectives of National Climate Change policy, 2011 was to formulate and implement LCEDS by 2014. Realizing and recognizing the immense potential of biogas, solar energy, wind energy, improved water mill, micro and mini hydropower, Nepal's Rural Energy Policy 2006 focused on the promotion of renewable energy use in Nepal.

Miles to Go ........

Nepal being member of UN REDD program has potential to generate benefits from forest restoration and reforestation. On the other hand, climate change issue doesn't seem to hold much importance to public as most of them aren't familiar with the term. Several organizations have been working for awareness and empowering the vulnerable yet still miles to go for united climate action. Moreover, Nepal is completely dependent on fossil fuel for transportation so investment in hybrid electric vehicles should be prioritized. Hopeful the promulgation of new constitution would prove to be a turning point in addressing climate change and empowering the susceptible community especially agricultural stakeholders.












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  • says :
    Thank you for thr report @Bindu, Nepal's community forestry efforts are seen as a major success :)
    Posted 30-10-2015 22:02

  • says :
    A very well written and detailed report.Glad to read about Nepal's efforts!
    Posted 29-10-2015 22:19

  • says :
    Wow, lots of interesting visuals (especially the first one! ) :)It's good to hear that Nepal is following the guideline of UNFCCC well..
    Posted 29-10-2015 15:26

  • Luiz Bispo says :
    Wow, comparing to other south asian countries Nepal is better regarding environmental damages. Thanks for sharing. The graphs are good to ilustrate as well. Keep it up =)
    Posted 29-10-2015 12:30

  • says :
    Dear Bikal da, thank you for going through :)
    Posted 29-10-2015 10:24

  • says :
    Thank you so much dear Rahul brother for going through :)
    Posted 29-10-2015 10:20

  • says :
    Yeah exactly dear Rohan, Nepal has miles to go for achieving visible results. Especially sustainable development policies and economy is lagging. I am hopeful that the country takes larger steps in addressing climate change in the days to come :)
    Posted 29-10-2015 10:18

  • says :
    Dear Arushi sister, yeah exactly climate change may sound like a jargoon to common man. But aware youths like us can play a pivotal role in spreading awareness among those common man along with the organizations working in it.
    Nepal has the least emissions in South Asian countries yet it is ranked among most vulnerable to effects of climate change. I hope every stakeholders work hand in hand to empower the vulnerable and prioritize the issue at forefront.
    Thank you for your kind feedback dear sister :)
    Posted 29-10-2015 10:15

  • says :
    Dear Patricia, thank you for going through. Yeah Nepal has been doing certain action but still needs to do a lot :)
    Posted 29-10-2015 10:03

  • says :
    so clearly illustrated.. thanks for sharing..
    Posted 28-10-2015 23:09

  • says :
    So vivid and beautiful report about Nepal dear Bindu di ^_^
    Posted 28-10-2015 21:51

  • Rohan Kapur says :
    Very well structured report, Bindu. You have provided detailed graphic info & charts also.
    Rightly written, Nepal has miles to go before concrete results are visible.
    But I hope that all efforts are in right direction & you'll achieve the eco-goal. All the best.
    Keep working..
    Posted 28-10-2015 20:08

  • Arushi Madan says :
    Good to know that Nepal has minimum CO2 emission among South Asian countries. I am proud of Nepal's reforestation achievements and yes it can indeed benefit from it. Agree with you that common man there may not be well versed with terms like 'Climate Change'. They may sound like jargons to them . So it is all the more important for NGOs, environmental agencies, municipalities and youth groups to spread awareness so that even the general public understands it and it's impact and contribute towards mitigating it. Thanks for a well researched and structured report with clear infographics.
    Posted 28-10-2015 18:23

  • says :
    Thank you for your report, Bindu. Good to know that Nepal has taken some actions into battling climate change. Keep up the good work!
    Posted 28-10-2015 18:02

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