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Green chemistry for sustainable development

by Nikolay Dagaev | 19-02-2020 07:16 recommendations 0 recommendations

What is Green chemistry?

In the early 1990s, at the initiative of the Clinton administration, the Department of toxicology and pollution prevention of the U.S. environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA Office of Pollution Prevention and toxins) organized activities under the President's Green chemistry Program. The interaction between the development of the US environmental Protection Agency and sustainable development technologies has led to the emergence of the concept of "Green chemistry", which is a kind of philosophy. While many national and international programs are aimed at preventing pollution and solving environmental problems, green chemistry places a unique emphasis on preventing pollution at the very initial stages of planning and implementing chemical processes.

Green chemistry is a fundamentally new innovative approach to reducing or eliminating the use of dangerous and toxic chemicals. Green chemistry is a fundamentally new approach to solving environmental problems, using clean and less polluting industrial processes and ensuring that manufacturers take responsibility for the products they produce.

Thus, carrying out chemical processes in accordance with the principles of green chemistry is considered both from the point of view of obtaining the necessary substances and consumer goods, and possible consequences for public health and the environment.

12 principles of Green chemistry.

Explain each of these principles.

In 1998, P. Anastas and j.Warner, in his book" Green chemistry: Theory and practice " [Anastas, P. T.; Warner, J. C. Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice, Oxford University Press: New York, 1998] formulated 12 principles of Green chemistry. These principles reflect the activities of the scientific community, industry, and government agencies aimed at reducing or eliminating the use of hazardous materials and chemical processes.

1. It is better to prevent losses than to recycle and clean waste.
2. Synthesis methods should be chosen in such a way that all the materials used in the process are maximally translated into the final product.
3. If possible, the synthesis methods should be chosen so that the substances used and synthesized are as little harmful to humans and the environment as possible.
4. When creating new chemical products, we must try to maintain the performance achieved earlier, while reducing the toxicity.
5. Excipients in production, such as solvents or separating agents, should not be used at all, and if this is not possible, their use should be harmless.
6. Be sure to take into account energy costs and their impact on the environment and the cost of the product. If possible, the synthesis should be carried out at a temperature close to the ambient temperature and at atmospheric pressure.
7. Raw materials and consumable materials must be renewable in all cases where it is technically and economically profitable.
8. Where possible, it is necessary to avoid obtaining intermediate products (block groups, attaching and removing protection, etc.).
9. Preference should always be given to catalytic processes (as selective as possible).
10. The chemical product must be such that it does not remain in the environment after use, but decomposes into safe products.
11. We need to develop analytical techniques so that we can monitor the formation of dangerous products in real time.
12. Substances and forms of substances used in chemical processes should be selected in such a way that the risk of chemical hazards, including leaks, explosion and fire, is minimal.

The Green chemistry approach involves a large number of factors for evaluating an industrial process, such as the cost of reagents, equipment, and labor; the cost of recycling waste and by-products, processing and cleaning reagents and the target product; the cost of transportation; providing storage and special equipment; the cost of providing additional precautions, and many others. Of course, if we consider each of these factors separately, it may sometimes seem that compliance with the principles of green chemistry only increases the cost of the process. For example, a large proportion of heterogeneous catalysts contain expensive noble metals. However, increasing the selectivity of the chemical process automatically reduces the cost of waste treatment and disposal. As a result, the total cost of the process will often be lower, despite the expensive cost of the catalyst.
The same reasoning is true for principle 3, which States that synthesis Methods should be chosen as far as possible so that the substances used and synthesized are as little harmful to humans and the environment as possible. The use of even non-toxic compounds significantly increases the cost of the process, starting from the stage of their purchase, the cost of transportation, storage and special equipment, the cost of providing additional precautions, etc. The transition in chemical technologies to non-toxic reagents is undoubtedly beneficial both from an environmental and economic point of view.

What are renewable resources and why are they more efficient to use in terms of green chemistry?

One of the principles of Green chemistry is related to the use of renewable resources instead of fossil resources. Today, it is no secret that the planet's fossil resources are being depleted. In this regard, there is a need to move to those resources that can be replenished. More strictly speaking, renewable natural resources are those resources that either recover faster than they are used (or their recovery rate is comparable to the rate of expenditure), or do not depend on whether they are used or not. For example, renewable natural resources include plant raw materials (wood, cereals, etc.). Some resources that are classified as renewable are not actually being restored and will eventually be exhausted. These include, for example, solar and geothermal energy. The" green " direction of development of the chemical industry is the synthesis of fuel from renewable biological raw materials (biofuels). To date, there are a large number of projects on this topic that offer processing of sugar cane stalks or rape seeds, corn, and soy.

What is biodiesel?

Today, the main types of "vegetable" fuel used for gasoline engines are biodiesel and bioethanol. The latter is produced from sugar beet, wheat, corn and sugar cane. In fact, this is an ordinary alcohol, in the manufacture of which for energy needs, of course, there are technological features.

As an automobile fuel, ethanol is superior to gasoline in some respects. It has much less impurities (for example, sulfur), and the octane number according to the research method reaches 125 units. However, it is not yet possible to fill most production cars with bioethanol in its pure form. Therefore, ethanol is sometimes used as a high-octane additive in conventional gasoline, and the corresponding fuel is marked with the letter E, for example, the marking of gasoline E10 (10% ethanol). The most widespread biofuels are found in Brazil, where fossil reserves are small, but the climate is quite conducive to growing plant materials. Another advantage of biofuels is considered to be the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Of course, this does not mean that the combustion of biofuels produces less carbon dioxide. When biofuels are burned, carbon that was previously absorbed by plants is returned to the atmosphere, so the planet's carbon balance remains unchanged. At the same time, when burning fossil fuels, "canned" carbon enters the atmosphere.
Water is a "universal solvent".

Why is it not considered a more environmentally friendly solvent than CO2?

As controversial as it may seem, water is not one of the most" green " solvents. The solubility of compounds in water is usually higher than, for example, in CO2. As a result, the risk of environmental pollution increases if such polluted water is released into the atmosphere.


Resources:
http://www.greenchemistry.ru/popularization/gordon.htm
http://www.greenchemistry.ru/popularization/golubina.htm

https://www.janssen.com/sites/www_janssen_com/files/multimedia/green-chemistry.jpg

 

NikolayDagaev

  • Russia E-gen Ambassador Nikolay Dagaev
 
 

16 Comments

Basanta Adhikari

  • Basanta Adhikari says :
    Greetings Nikolay
    I hope you are doing well
    Very well written report on green chemistry.
    Thank you so much for this Report.
    Keep writing
    Green cheers
    Regards
    Basanta
    Posted 21-03-2020 10:50

Hema  Sapkota

  • Hema Sapkota says :
    Hello nikolay
    I hope you are doing well!
    Nice report
    Keep writing
    Thank you so much for this report!

    Looking forward to reading some more reports.
    Green cheers!

    Best regards
    Hema
    Posted 19-03-2020 11:49

Nikolay Dagaev

  • Nikolay Dagaev says :
    Hello Hyeongmin! Thank You for your attention to my work!
    Posted 29-02-2020 05:32

Jasmine Karki

  • Jasmine Karki says :
    Greetings
    I do hope everything is going well..

    Thank you so much for sharing your report!!
    Really enjoyed your report and hope to read more on upcoming days...

    Green cheers
    Regards
    Jasmine karki
    Posted 27-02-2020 00:44

Hyeongmin Mentor

  • Hyeongmin Mentor says :
    Hello Nikolay

    I could learn a lot from your report. These days I can read quite a lot of reports that are about the damaged environment due to the usage of artificial chemicals. There were some possible alternatives, but it seems like a long way to go. Your report refers to a clear linkage between the green chemicals and renewable energy. It can be an another step toward sustainable development.

    Thank you for the great ideas and information!
    Posted 23-02-2020 12:14

Rachu Khanal

  • Rachu Khanal says :
    Thank you for the report
    Posted 22-02-2020 19:39

Nikolay Dagaev

  • Nikolay Dagaev says :
    Hi Lisa! Yes, I was interested in the topic of green chemistry at school. I hope to contribute to the development of this area.
    Posted 21-02-2020 21:12

Nikolay Dagaev

  • Nikolay Dagaev says :
    Hello Maftunakhon! Do you know a little Russian? This is nice ) thank You for your attention to my work!
    Posted 21-02-2020 21:11

Nikolay Dagaev

  • Nikolay Dagaev says :
    Hi Kushal! I hope you're doing great, too! Thank you for responding to my report!
    Posted 21-02-2020 21:09

Kushal Naharki

  • Kushal Naharki says :
    Hello Nikolay

    I do hope that you are fine and doing great with your works.
    Thank you for your report about Green chemistry for sustainable development

    Green Cheers from Nepal :)
    Keep writing great reports.
    We are eager to read more reports from you.

    Regards,
    Kushal Naharki

    Posted 21-02-2020 10:39

Maftunakhon Solieva

  • Maftunakhon Solieva says :
    Zdrastvuyte Nikolay Dagaev,
    I appreciate your effort in writing this article and your time for research. I liked it.
    Posted 20-02-2020 15:29

Lisa Mentor

  • Lisa Mentor says :
    Hey Nikolay,
    It's Lisa your mentor.

    Looks like you have done some research on the topic!
    Nice job:)
    It reminds me of this catchphrase of one of the successful campaigns for diseases, which was 'prevention before cure'. I strongly agree with the idea because not only is it more economical but it puts fewer people at risk. I think this is what green chemistry is all about. While some are trying to solve what has been done, well let's worsen the situation so that those who engage in improving the status quo can actually make improvements that are not offset by new damages.

    Great viewpoint that we should all know about!
    Thank you dear:) '

    Posted 19-02-2020 23:32

Nikolay Dagaev

  • Nikolay Dagaev says :
    Muhammad hi! Thank you for your attention to the report!
    Posted 19-02-2020 20:52

Nikolay Dagaev

  • Nikolay Dagaev says :
    Elizaveta hi! Thank you for your attention to the report!
    Posted 19-02-2020 20:51

Elizaveta Zaretskaya

Muhammad Fajhriyadi

  • Muhammad Fajhriyadi says :
    Thats tue the biodiesel must be optimally for our life beside the other energy
    Posted 19-02-2020 18:15

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