| Share facebook | RSS


ambassador Report View

November Free Report [Flooding in Ghana]

by David Kalayi | 30-11-2023 02:08 recommendations 0

Flooding in Ghana.

Flooding is an overflowing of water onto land that is normally dry. The inundation of a normally dry area caused by rising water in an existing waterway, such as a river, stream, or drainage ditch.

Flooding is a recurring and devastating problem in Ghana, causing loss of lives, displacement, and extensive damage to infrastructure, agriculture, and the economy. The country's geographical location, coupled with urbanization, poor drainage systems, and climate change, has contributed to the severity and frequency of flooding.

 Flooding is said to be a natural disaster but in Ghana I will prefer to say that is a man-made disaster caused the people. According to the news reporters and broadcast station in Ghana, when ever there is a flood issues, it is been concluded as a result by the activities of man. Many residences living along rivers, streams and gutters dump refuse to into these water ways when raining, and this cause the water ways to get choked and prevent the free flow of water and due to this the water finds its own channel to flow and this result to the flooding. Poor community or town layout also result to flooding.  Buildings are been built anyhow without any proper planning to allow the free flow of water.

 Within the past decades, flooding has become a global pandemic, which hampers economic and social development. This global phenomenon has led to loss of lives and economic damages in many countries including Ghana. On June 3rd 2015, Accra, Ghana’s capital experienced an unprecedented flash flood event, coupled with an explosion at a Goil filling station that resulted in a death toll of over 152 lives.

Currently, Ghana is flooded and in distress due to the opening of the Akosombo Dam and submerged in water. The Volta River Authority (VRA) began spilling water from the Akosombo Dam in October 15 2023, in order to protect the dam from overtopping. This spillage has caused a lot of damage to communities like Mepe, Battor, Sogakope, Mafi, Adidomeand Ada. According to the National Disaster Management Organization (NADMO) in Ghana, more than 26,000 people has been displaced by floods in Mepe and other parts of North Tongu district.

Reports from NADMO in Ghana indicates that more than 26,000 individuals have been displaced by these floods. For many, it has resulted in the loss of homes, possessions, and livelihoods. Additionally, the floods have left a trail of damage, affecting vital infrastructure like roads, bridge, and schools.

 Causes and effects of perennial flooding in Ghana

Isaac Addei


 Feb - 29 - 2016, 08:47

Some of the causes of flooding in urban centers in Ghana are poor planning of towns and cities, poor drainage systems, improper disposal of refuse, silting and choking of drains, improper enforcement of laws on building construction and sanitation and low and flat lands.

Poor planning of towns and cities; One of the main causes of flooding in towns and cities is that the layout of buildings and other structures is poorly made.  Buildings for human settlements, offices and businesses are not properly and orderly arranged. There are haphazardly built structures and buildings without adequate spaces created in between these buildings.


Poor drainage systems; Poor drainage systems in the towns and cities contribute immensely to flooding in these areas. In cities and towns such as Accra, Kumasi and Sekondi-Takoradi, drains are poorly constructed. The drains and gutters constructed are not large enough to ensure easy flow of water. The result is that when the rains fall heavily, there is an overflow of water, even in areas considered to be dry.


Improper disposal of refuse; Another cause of flooding is the improper way in which people and business enterprises dispose of their solid waste. Households, passengers, pedestrians and educational institutions throw their garbage, wrappers, plastics and scraps into gutters, streets and drains.

Silting and choking of drains; Silting and choking of drains, resulting from poor drainage systems and improper disposal of refuse is also a major cause of flooding in cities and towns. People, market women and business enterprises throw their garbage into drains and gutters. This prevents the easy flow of water. As such, some communities become flooded whenever it rains heavily.


Poor architecture; Poor architecture resulting from ignorance on the effects of the improper siting of buildings is a further cause of flooding in towns and cities in Ghana. In cities such as Accra, Kumasi and Sekondi-Takoradi, people construct their buildings on water- courses, thereby blocking the passage of water. Hence, there is an overflow of water resulting in flooding whenever it rains heavily.


Improper enforcement of laws on building construction and sanitation; There are floods in cities and towns because the laws that govern building construction and sanitation are not strictly enforced by the authorities concerned. The non-enforcement of these laws has allowed people to flout them with impunity as people construct their buildings anywhere in the cities.

Low level and flat land; A natural cause of flooding in some cities and towns in the country is the flat nature of the lands. In cities such as Accra, most parts of the area lie below the sea level and they are flat in nature. Such areas become submerged anytime they experience heavy rains. Silted and choked drains also account for these mishaps.


The effects of flooding on the environment, some of the effects of flooding on the environment are the destruction of life and property, destruction of crops, soil erosion, loss of soil fertility and waterlogged land or soil.


Destruction of life and property; One of the major effects of flooding is the destruction of life and property. Many people lose their lives through flooding. Flooding also results in the destruction of buildings and vehicles, rendering a lot of people homeless. Animals such as cattle, sheep, goats, fowls and dogs die during the floods.


Destruction of crops; Another effect of flooding is that crops and plants. The swiftness of the water uproots plants are destroyed and carries them away. The result is low agricultural production, leading to scarcity of food and exorbitant prices of food.

Soil erosion; Flooding leads to soil erosion. The quick and swift flow of water is able to remove and carry away the top soil which contains most of the plant nutrients, making the soil infertile. Soil erosion renders buildings weak, leading to their collapse. Channels and gullies are also created on streets and roads, making some of them impassable.


Waterlogged land or soil; Flooding further leads to the land or soil becoming waterlogged. As flood water remains on the land for long periods, it becomes saturated, that is, it contains too much water than it can hold. Such land cannot be used for any agricultural activity, as most crops do not do well in waterlog.

To put a stop or reduce the rate at which flooding has been occurring in Ghana, I think the government of Ghana should make laws or enforce the existing laws against people who build without informing the municipal assembly, also demolishing of buildings along water ways, building a sea wall or defense, and lastly there should be a proper drainage system to carry both waste water and rain water away.


Research gate

Hot task manager

Graphic Online


 Conversation with Bing, 11/29/2023

(1) Flooding in Ghana - The way forward. https://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/features/Flooding-in-Ghana-The-way-forward-1802024.

(2) Causes and effects of perennial flooding in urban centers in Ghana .... https://www.graphic.com.gh/features/opinion/causes-and-effects-of-perennial-flooding-in-urban-centres-in-ghana.html.





  • Ghana Former E-gen Ambassador David Kalayi
  • recommend


SangHyeon Park

  • SangHyeon Park says :
    Ghana faces severe flooding due to poor planning, inadequate drainage, and improper waste disposal. Solutions include law enforcement, demolitions, and improved drainage systems. Your report case light upon this severe problem. Thank you for this report!
    Posted 02-12-2023 16:06

Seeun Mentor

  • Seeun Mentor says :
    Hello, this is mentor Seeun.
    Thanks to your report, I can see why flooding happened in Ghana, and also why the effects are so devastating. I believe proper waste management and better planning of drainage systems is key to this problem.
    Great report!
    Posted 01-12-2023 14:16

Melissa Menlah Adu

  • Melissa Menlah Adu says :
    David Kalayi sheds light on the pressing issue of flooding in Ghana, emphasizing its devastating impact on lives, infrastructure, and the economy. With insightful analysis, he pinpoints causes such as poor planning, drainage issues, and improper waste disposal. The effects, ranging from destruction of property to soil erosion, underline the urgency for comprehensive solutions. Strengthening laws, enforcing building regulations, and investing in proper drainage systems emerge as vital steps. 🇬🇭💧 #GhanaFloods #ResilienceNeeded.
    Posted 30-11-2023 13:33

Post a comment

Please sign in