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by Meena Pandey | 04-10-2019 15:15 recommendations 0 recommendations

Environmental impact assessment is a planning tool that is now generally regarded as an integral component of sound decision making. It is also defined as a formal process used to predict the environmental consequences of any development project. Similarly, it is a planning tool whose main purpose is to give the environment its due place in the decision making process by clearing evaluating the environmental consequences of a proposed activity before action is taken. It is a tool used to identify the environmental, social and economic impacts of a project prior to decision making.
The International Association For Impact Assessment (IAIA) defines an environmental impact assessment as “the process of identifying, predicting ,evaluating and mitigating the biophysical ,social ,and other relevant effects of development proposals prior to major decisions being taken and commitments made.”
EIA is needed in the intention of the process ,albeit originally ,is to ensure proposals are assessed to determine whether they are environmentally sound and sustainable. EIA process can be used to minimize or prevent adverse impacts alongside the maximization of positive outcomes of a proposal. GUIDING  




             Sustainability: the EIA process should result in environmental safeguards.

·                     Integrity: the EIA process will confirm to agree standards.  

·                     Utility:  the EIA process will provide balanced, credible.


·                     Participation: appropriate and timely access to the processes for all interested parties.

·                     Transparency: all assessment decisions, and their basis, should be open and accessible

·                     Certainty: the process and timing of assessment should be agreed in advance and followed by all participants.

·                     Accountability: decision makers are responsible to all parties for their actions and decisions under the process.

·                     Creditability: assessments should be undertaken with professionalism and objectivity

·                     Cost effectiveness: the assessment process and its outcomes will ensure environmental protection at the least cost to the society.

·                     Practicality: the information and outputs provided by the assessment process should be readily usable in decision making and planning

·                     Flexibility: the assessment process should be able to adapt to deal efficiently and effectively with any proposal or decision making and planning.


Environmental impact assessment in developing countries in developing countries is imposed by the financing international organizations like World Bank and International Money Fund. But in most cases enforcing EIA in developing countries is difficult because

·         Absence of concrete environmental policy

·         Absence of technical expertise

·         Absence of transparent policy

·         Low public participation

In this case donor organizations (EU, WB , and OECD /DAC) have developed their own guideline for developing countries.

Assessment of environmental impact is a process that answers the following questions:

·         What is the threat?

·         What are the possible impacts?

·         What impacts, out of the constellation of possible impacts are probable and important enough to be concern of?

·         How can the project be modified to reduce or eliminate the concerns?

·         During the project, did the permittee follow the conditions of the permit? (During and after the project, were our impact predictions accurate? Were the impacts acceptable?

                                                             WHEN SHOULD EIA BE APPLIED??

                                                              The EIA should be applied:

·         To all the proposals that are likely to cause potentially significant adverse impacts to the environment.

·         To all the proposals that are likely to add to actual or potential foreseeable cumulative impacts on the environment.


·         As a primary instrument to ensure that the potential impacts of a proposal are avoided, minimized and /or rehabilitated.

·         To ensure that the scope of review is consistent with the nature of the proposal and commensurate with the likely causes and impacts.



·         Throughout the project cycle, beginning as early as possible in the concept design phase.

·         With clear reference to the requirements for the project authorization and follow up, including  impact avoidable ,minimization and/or rehabilitation.

·         Consistent with the application of ‘best practicable’ knowledge and mitigation technologies.

·         In accordance with the established procedures and project specific terms of reference including agreed timelines.

·         To provide meaningful public concentration with communities, groups and parties directly affected by, or with interest in, the project and /or its environmental and social impacts.

                                                             WHY SHOULD EIA ADDRESS?

·         All related relevant factors, including environmental, social and health risks and impacts.

·         Cumulative and long term, large scale effects

·         Design, location and technological alternatives of the proposals being addressed.

·         Sustainability considerations including materials use, by-product generation and there social and environmental implications.

·         The impacts (positive and negative) of the proposal not going ahead.


The environmental impact assessment process can be subdivided into three main stages:

v  The pre-study phase

v  The actual impact assessment, which results in the Environmental Impact Assessment(EIS)

v  The post-study period, in which the information is used to come to a decision and in which impacts of the project are monitored.


§  Collection and analysis of basic data on the project (including the possible project alternatives) and on the environment as far as it is likely to be affected.

§  The identification involves an estimate of the order of magnitude of the impacts. Usually, not all potential impacts are studied in detail. For the selection of the impacts to be studied in detail, criteria are used such as:

Ø  Magnitude (the quantum of change)

Ø  Extent (the affected area)

Ø  Significance (with respect to effects)

§  The process of selecting the relevant alternatives and identification of the important impacts is commonly known as scooping. The scope of the EIA, which also includes agreement on the contents and requirements of the EIS, is usually determined in a number of meetings between the  proponent and the decision making authority.




  • Nepal E-gen Ambassador Meena Pandey


Hema  Sapkota

  • Hema Sapkota says :
    Hello meena
    I hope you are doing well!
    Nice report
    Keep writing
    Thank you so much for this report!

    Looking forward to reading some more reports.
    Green cheers!

    Best regards
    Posted 19-03-2020 11:40

Susmita Horticulturist

  • Susmita Horticulturist says :
    Hello meena
    I hope you are doing well.

    Thank you so much for this report.
    Green cheers
    Posted 07-03-2020 18:48

Horticulturist Susmita

  • Horticulturist Susmita says :
    Hello meena
    I hope you are doing well
    Thank you so much for this report
    Posted 01-03-2020 10:29

Horticulturist Susmita

  • Horticulturist Susmita says :
    Hello meena
    I hope you are doing well

    Thank you so much for this report.
    Posted 01-03-2020 01:48

Meena Pandey

  • Meena Pandey says :
    Thank you Asmita didi!!!
    Posted 11-10-2019 13:54

Asmita Gaire

  • Asmita Gaire says :
    Hello meena sis
    I hope you are well.

    Thank you so much for letting us know about EIA.

    Thank you for this report.

    Green Cheers
    Asmita Gaire
    Posted 11-10-2019 02:15

Meena Pandey

  • Meena Pandey says :
    Thank you Nityashri!!
    Posted 06-10-2019 21:34


Meena Pandey

  • Meena Pandey says :
    Thank you Tula Raj!!!
    Posted 05-10-2019 01:11


  • TULA RAJ says :
    Great to read .
    Tula Raj
    Posted 05-10-2019 00:07

Meena Pandey

  • Meena Pandey says :
    Thank you Sandhya.
    Posted 04-10-2019 23:25

Sandhya Adhikari

  • Sandhya Adhikari says :
    Hello Meena Pandey,
    Thanks you shared an Idea about EIA,
    This will make easier to me to learn about my course matter.
    keep on writing.
    Posted 04-10-2019 23:10

Meena Pandey

  • Meena Pandey says :
    Thank you Prakriti!!!
    Posted 04-10-2019 18:59

Prakriti  Ghimire

Meena Pandey

  • Meena Pandey says :
    Thank you Alok Brother.
    Posted 04-10-2019 15:31


  • ALOK DHAKAL says :
    Thanks for such wonderful article!
    Posted 04-10-2019 15:30

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