| Share facebook twitter | RSS

0
Comments

World Report View

Biodiversity In Nepal( Monthly report for May)

by Sonika Pariyar | 18-05-2022 12:30 recommendations 0

 BIO means life and diversity means variety which refers to the the variety of life on the Earth which was coined by Walter .G. Rosen in 1985. It is defined as the variation among living organisms from different sources including terrestrial, marine, and desert ecosystems, and the ecological complexes of which they are apart. Biodiversity includes not only species we consider rare, threatened, or endangered but also every living thing—from humans to organisms we know little about, such as microbes, fungi, and invertebrates. It is the most complex and important feature of our planet.

Nepal is a landlocked country situated in the central part of the Himalayas between India and China. It has tremendous geographic diversity that ranges from tropical alluvial plains in the south to the very rugged and permanently snow and ice-covered Himalayan Mountains in the north. Nepal’s unique geography with its dramatic changes in elevation along the relatively short north-south span and the associated high variability in eco-climatic conditions has resulted in a uniquely rich diversity of flora and fauna in the country. Moreover, the country’s position at the crossroad of two major biogeographic regions (Indo-Malayan to the south and Palearctic to the north) has made Nepal a melting pot of species originating from both regions.

Species diversity, particularly beta diversity, is very high in Nepal. The country occupies about 0.1 percent of the global area but harbors 3.2 percent and 1.1 percent of the world's known flora and fauna, respectively.

9.3% - Birds

1.6% - Replies

2.6% - Butterflies

2.2% - Fishes

2.6% - Flowering Plants

4.6% - Mammals

 

Nepal is tenth in position in terms of flowering plant diversity in Asia and 31st on a world scale (MoFSC, 2014). More than 30 species of rhododendron are found in Nepal. The total number of orchids found in Nepal is 494 (this includes 456 species, 30 varieties, 6 subspecies, and 2 forma). These species fall within 104 genes (K.P. Acharya,2012). Annotated checklist of the flowering plants of Nepal mentioned 89 genera and 323 species.

A total of 118 ecosystems have been identified in Nepal, including 112 forest ecosystems, four cultivation ecosystems, one water body ecosystem, and one glacier/snow/rock ecosystem. These ecosystems range from the tall grasslands, marshlands, and tropical and subtropical broadleaf forests along the Terai and Siwalik Hills to the sub-tropical and tropical broadleaf and conifer forests in the Middle Mountains. Furthermore, there are mixed and conifer forests in the High Mountains and alpine meadows above the tree line. Among the rangeland ecosystems, the tropical savannas and alpine meadows are exceptionally rich in biodiversity. (CBD Fifth National Report Nepal, 2014). The majority of the ecosystem are reported to be found in the Mid Mountain (52 ecosystems) and in the High Mountain (38 ecosystems) (MoFSC, 2014). Out of these ecosystems, 80 ecosystems are in the existing protected areas that cover 23.23% of the country’s area (DNPWC, 2016). Nepalese wetlands have very significant ecological significance, as they provide habitat for many threatened and endemic species of flora and fauna and serve as resting places for many migratory and globally threatened birds. The wetlands also have high cultural and economic significance. Nepal also has a high degree of agroecological diversity. (CBD Fifth National Report Nepal, 2014)

Flora and Fauna Diversity of Nepal

 

Floral Diversity (Group of Species)

No. of species

Faunal Diversity (Group of Species)

No. of species

Angiosperm

6973

Mammals

208

Gymnosperm

26

Birds

867

Bryophytes

1150

Reptiles

123

Pteridophytes

534

Amphibians

117

Fungi

1822

Fish

230

Lichens

465

Butterfly

651

Algae

1001

Moth

3958

 

 

Spiders

175

 

 

Others

5642

Total

11971

Total

11861

 

 

 

 

Sources: MoE, 2010; MoFSC, 2014

                                            

 

 References:

Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation (MoFSC), 2014

Convention On Biological Diversity (CBS)

Acharya, K.P. and Dhakal, M. (eds) 2012Biodiversity Conservation in Nepal: A Success Story

 

 

 

 

 

Rhododendron Spiny Babbler Lichen

SonikaPariyar

  • Nepal E-gen Ambassador Sonika Pariyar

0 Comments

Post a comment

Please sign in

Opportunities

Youth Innovation Challenge 2022: Tackling Marine D...
Date: 29/06/2022 to 01/09/2022
Type: Online

know out plastic
Date: 05-02-2020 to 01-12-2020
Type: Offline

  • attendance banner

Resources