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Climate Change Policies and Adaptation in Nepal

by Sujan Adhikari | 30-10-2015 19:30 recommendations 0

As effects of climate change are being severe, people are now on track working to mitigate its effects and also adapt with changing climate. Climate change is a natural phenomenon. Anthropogenic climate change has been accelerated by the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs), primarily from industrialization, deforestation and increased use of fossil fuels for transport.

 Scientific evidence, as cited by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), clearly indicates the wide scale of climate change. Accordingly, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution to develop an international legal instrument to address this global problem.


Situation of Climate Change in Nepal:

 1. Nepal has experienced an average maximum annual temperature increase of 0.060C. This rate of increase is higher in the mountains than in other regions. Despite having only 0.4 percent of the total global population and being responsible for only 0.025 percent of total GHG emissions in the world, Nepal will be affected disproportionately, especially from increasing atmospheric temperature.

2. Changes in the annual rainfall cycle, intense rainfall and longer droughts have been observed. Similarly, both days and nights are presently warmer. The number of days with 100 mm of heavy rainfall is increasing. The timing and duration of rainfall is changing. As glaciers recede from rapid snow and ice melting, glacier lakes are expanding.

 3. The adverse impacts of climate change have been noticed in agriculture and food security, water resources, forests and biodiversity, health, tourism and infrastructures. Climate-induced disasters and other effects have caused damages and losses to life, property, and livelihoods.

4. Millions of Nepalese are estimated to be at risk to climate change. In the past 90 years, a glacier in the Sagarmatha region has receded 330 feet vertically.

 5. Because of glacier melting, new glacier lakes have formed. Although there will be an increase in river flows until 2030, this is projected to decrease significantly by the end of this century.

 The problems arising due to climate change are increasing over the years. Nepal has to implement adaptation programmes even if it is not being responsible for climate change. Hence, Nepal has considered climate adaptation as a national agenda and has taken several initiatives for implementing different programmes for risk reduction in the recent years.


1.Climate adaptation and disaster risk reduction

1. Implementing priority actions identified in the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA), and identifying and implementing medium- and long-term adaptation actions in the climate impacted and climate-induced disaster-prone areas, communities, and people

2 Linking and implementing climate adaptation with socio-economic development and income-generating activities to the extent possible

3 Monitoring the status of glaciers and glacier lakes through studies and implement adaptation activities in priority vulnerable glaciers

4 Forecasting water-induced disasters and risks created from climate change and providing early warning information, developing necessary mechanism for the implementation of preventive measures and ensuring regular supervision, and enhancing capacity

5 Identifying the people, communities and areas impacted by climate change and implementing adaptation and impact mitigation measures based on local knowledge, skills and technologies

6 Formulating and implementing integrated programmes taking into consideration the objectives and the provisions of the conventions related to climate change,desertification and biodiversity

7 Developing a necessary mechanism for forecasting and preventing vector-borne, infectious and communicable diseases induced by climate change

8 Developing and expanding bilateral and multilateral cooperation for risk reduction and adaptation to address the effects of climate change in the international transboundary areas.

 2 Low carbon development and climate resilience

1 Adopting a low carbon emissions and climate-resilient development path for sustainable socio-economic growth

2 Formulating and implementing the necessary strategies, guidelines and working procedures to support a socio-economic development that is climate-friendly and resilient.

3 Expanding the scope of carbon sequestration through scientific management of the forests, formulating and implementing land use plans and controlling  deforestation

4 Reducing GHG emissions through additional development and utilization of clean, renewable and alternative energy technologies and formulating and implementing plans to address adverse impacts of climate change

5 Providing incentives to develop appropriate technology, its transfer and utilization for reducing the emissions of air pollutants, at source, that increase the atmospheric temperature

6 Auditing the energy intensity of industries every two years to promote energy efficiency and submitting the audit to the designated authority for climate change

7 Developing and promoting transport industries that use electricity (electric train, rope way, cable car etc.)

8 Formulating and implementing design standards for climate resilient construction of bridges, dams, river flood control and other infrastructure

9 Encouraging low carbon emission by providing financial and technical support and incentives.

3 Access to financial resources and utilization

1 Establishing a Climate Change Fund for mobilizing the financial resources from public and private, internal and external sources to address the issues of climate change.

2 Generating financial resources by promoting carbon trade and Clean Development Mechanism

3 Generating financial resources through the implementation of the "polluter pays principle" and the payment for environmental services concept

4 Managing the financial resources from current and future multilateral and bilateral support for climate change activities and the Climate Change Fund

5 Utilising the benefits accrued from mechanisms for mitigating and adapting to climate change and for reducing poverty and promoting sustainable development

6 Utilizing the financial resources available from national and international sources for climate adaptation, adverse impacts mitigation and low carbon development activities, as well as for food, health and livelihood security of victims of water-induced disasters, such as floods, landslides and droughts

7 Formulating and implementing necessary strategies, guidelines, and working procedures for replenishment and utilization of the Climate Change Fund

8 Allocating at least 80 percent of available funds for field-level climate change activities

9 Managing the fund and making it easily accessible for the climate adaptation, resilience and other climate change-related programmes.

4 Capacity building, people's participation and empowerment

1 Updating information and building capacity from local to policy level on climate adaptation, impact mitigation, low carbon growth, technology development and transfer, and carbon trade

2 Ensuring the participation of poor people, Dalits, marginalized indigenous communities, women, children and youth in the implementation of climate adaptation and climate change-related programmes

3 Implementing local climate change-related programmes through local institutions by enhancing their capacity

4 Enhancing the adaptive capacity of food grains, species, ecosystem and health from probable effects of climate change

5 Publishing and distributing targeted knowledge-related materials, such as data, information, success stories related to climate change

6 Building the capacity of media to ensure the dissemination of climate change-related information

7 Increasing the participation of local institutions, expertise-based federations, NGOs and civil society for information dissemination and capacity building of common people by involving them in awareness raising, training and empowerment-related activities

8 Developing and mobilizing skilled manpower as a means to increasing the access to technical and financial resources for climate change activities

9 Improving teacher training materials by including climate change in formal and informal education, distant education and open learning programmes

10 Collecting, publishing, disseminating and utilizing climate adaptation and adverse impact mitigation-related traditional and local knowledge, skills, practices, and technologies 

11 Establishing an annual national climate change award for institutions and persons who have made significant contributions to responding to climate change.

5 Study and research

1 Conducting climate change-related research to expand the implementation of measures for adapting to adverse impacts and benefiting from positive impacts


2 Establishing and maintaining a state-of-the-art database of sector- and theme-based research knowledge, data and reports


3 Preparing and utilizing regional climate models and other models for research

 4 Carrying out regular research and monitoring of risks related to climate change impacts


5 Utilizing the results obtained from research for the formulation and implementation of policy, strategy, and programmes


6 Encouraging bio-fuel research, promotion of bio-fuels without adverse impacts on food security


7 Identifying geographical areas and sectors that are vulnerable to climate change impacts through participatory studies and identifying mitigation measures


8 Expanding the network of climate observation centers for identifying the impacts and climate change processes in different geographical regions of the country, and developing real time data acquisition system and analyzing them.


6 Technology development, transfer and utilization

 1 Identifying and developing appropriate technologies for mitigating the adverse impacts of climate change


2 Identifying and documenting climate-friendly traditional techniques, indigenous skills and knowledge and their utilization and make necessary improvements in traditional techniques and technologies for their practical use


3 Developing modern water conserving technologies as an alternative to flood irrigation systems


4 Developing and increasing the sustainable utilization of clean and green technologies


5 Developing and expanding low methane emitting agricultural technologies


6 Emphasizing the acquisition, transfer and sustainable use of climate-friendly technologies and enhancing capacity for their utilization


7 Identifying, developing and utilizing agricultural varieties/species that can tolerate drought (too little water) and floods (too much water) and


8 Developing and utilizing technologies through necessary research for constructing climate-resilient structures and infrastructure.


7 Climate-friendly natural resources management

 1 Developing and implementing a scientific land use system


2 Proper utilization, promotion, conservation of forest resources as a means of alternative livelihoods


3 Prioritizing and implementing programmes on the sustainable management of forests, agro-forestry, pasture, rangeland, and soil conservation that can address the impacts of climate change


4 Encouraging investments in clean energy sources with priority on hydropower from national, regional, and international sources.


5 Conserving soil and water through measures such as source protection, rain water harvesting, and environmental sanitation


6 Encouraging carbon sequestration and investing some of the benefits from the use of forest products for controlling forest fires and conserving forests


7 Developing a mechanism for optimal utilization of international, regional and local funding sources, including reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD)


8 Adopting a basin approach for water management through regular monitoring of water resource availability.


1. National Adaptation Program of Action to Climate Change, 2010

2. Climate Change Policy, 2011

Bio gasSolar POwer in Sarankot Pokhara by Sujan Adhikari

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  • Dormant user Sujan Adhikari
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  • Asmita Gaire says :
    Hello sujan
    I hope you are doing well
    Thank you so much for this report
    Green cheers
    Asmita Gaire
    Posted 12-05-2020 02:28

  • Horticulturist Susmita says :
    Greetings sujan
    I hope you are doing well
    Thank you so much for this report

    Keep writing
    I hope to read more from you
    Green cheers
    Posted 25-03-2020 02:40

  • Basanta Adhikari says :
    Greeting Sujan
    I hope you are doing well
    Nicely written
    Thank you so much for this report.
    Keep writing
    Green cheers!
    Posted 23-03-2020 10:39

  • Sujan Adhikari says :
    Well Said MEGHANA, Its already implemented and people are following it.
    Posted 01-11-2015 21:52

  • says :
    Good report and well detailed.I am happy to hear that Nepal has been planning and implementing such wonderful strategies to overcome climate change because, climate change is the major threat to the environment of today and taking small steps to eradicate climate change must be done by everyone.
    Posted 01-11-2015 21:45

  • Sujan Adhikari says :
    Of course Rohan , Nepal is putting it efforts in right direction and now we people need high motivation for its success.
    Posted 01-11-2015 21:30

  • Rohan Kapur says :
    Thanks for the amazing & detailed report Sujan. Nepal is putting the policies & efforts in right direction.
    Now, local population must put their own efforts to make it succeed.
    Posted 01-11-2015 20:21

  • Sujan Adhikari says :
    Thanks Kirtan, Sabin, Arushi, Luiz for going through the report.
    Posted 01-11-2015 16:36

  • Luiz Bispo says :
    Very informative report mate!!! It is great to know all things that Nepal is setting up to environment and climate change issue.
    Posted 01-11-2015 09:18

  • Arushi Madan says :
    Nepal has been planning, developing and implementing various strategies, resources and technologies to overcome challenges put by climate change . Thanks for a very well structured report, rich in information.
    Posted 01-11-2015 08:20

  • says :
    Seven policies well explain. In Nepal definitely administration is always a problem but there have been some positive changes and specially the people at local level are doing great.

    Great report with precise points and good photos too.
    Posted 31-10-2015 12:25

  • says :
    Good Report Brother, Yeah Solar energy, bio gas energy can be good at this critical juncture.
    Posted 31-10-2015 00:02

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