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[Free topic] New! Ecological problems in Kazakhstan

by Diana Gamazova | 13-05-2021 17:00 recommendations 0

Most recently, at school, we passed modern environmental problems of the ecology of Kazakhstan, I was one of the speakers and this is what I told my classmates: 
Along with the increase in the population, humanity has achieved great success in the development of science and technology. Scientific and technological progress has significantly worsened the state of the environment, which has had a negative impact on human health. Human activity to change nature has reached such a level that it becomes dangerous for the existence of life on Earth and leads to irreparable consequences. For example, environmental pollution with chemical waste has led to the fact that the consequences of the "greenhouse effect", "ozone holes", "acid rain", "photochemical smog"have become more frequent. In recent years, we have often observed arid phenomena, desertification, and a decrease in the water level in reservoirs. These problems were especially evident in the twentieth century in the Karabugazkol, the Caspian and Aral Seas. To raise the level of the Caspian Sea, the Karabugazkol Bay was fenced off with an earthen dam. But at the same time, they did not take into account the damage that the drying bay can cause to the environment and nearby farms. Later, after 25-30 years, it became clear that the decline in the level of the Caspian Sea is not related to the Gulf, but depends on the laws of the evolutionary development of the earth's crust. According to the age-old geological rhythms, every 50-100 years the sea level either decreases or increases. And from the bottom of the dried-up bay, 120-140 million tons of dust, containing mainly sodium sulfates, enter the atmosphere annually. The ecological condition of other lakes and rivers in Kazakhstan is not the best. Changes in the composition of soils due to contamination with heavy metals and harmful chemicals that enter the rivers Irtysh, Ural, Syr Darya, Or, Tobol, Koksa together with industrial waste and domestic wastewater. And the Caspian Sea is so polluted with oil products that mass deaths of coastal birds and animals are not uncommon.

Ecological state of the air basin

The atmosphere is the source of life on the entire planet, which has no borders. Since the atmosphere is the common wealth of all mankind on the globe, its quality and purity are an incomparable part of the biosphere. Its mass is equal to 5,157 tons. The atmosphere consists of several layers: the troposphere, ozone, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere. It is difficult to overestimate the importance of the atmosphere in a person's life. The atmosphere not only supplies the entire globe with clean air, but also enriches the environment with the necessary gaseous elements. In addition, the atmosphere protects the Earth from harmful cosmic radiation, promotes the exchange of energy and substances in nature, and ultimately-the stability of life on Earth. But in recent years, the much-needed air pool has undergone major changes. The main sources of pollution are industrial enterprises, motor transport, heat generated by factories, spaceships and rockets. In Kazakhstan, the level of air pollution with harmful substances and various chemical compounds is regularly monitored by the Research Institute at Kazhydrometcenter. Depending on the time of year, the situation of the meteorological situation is clarified and the results are regularly reported to the population in the journal "Ecological Bulletin". Judging by the index of atmospheric pollution in 1995-2005, the cities of Ridder, Zyryanovsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Zhezkazgan, Balkhash, Karaganda, Pavlodar, Ekibastuz, Temirtau, and Almaty are unfavorable in this regard.

A very big danger is the fact that the air contains a fairly large amount of heavy metals. Lead, zinc, tin, mercury, and other toxic compounds are constantly present in the atmosphere.

The annual volume of pollutants released into the atmosphere reaches a total of 200 million tons worldwide.

Ecology of water resources

The pollution of the earth's water resources today worries all of humanity. This problem is also real for Kazakhstan. Pollution of the water system occurs in various ways. Modern water pollutants are classified as follows:

* Biological contamination: plants, animals, micro-organisms and bacteria.

* Chemical pollution: toxic substances and substances that destroy the natural environment of the aquatic environment.

* Physical pollution: thermal effects, electromagnetic waves, radioactive substances. The World Health Organization determines the quality of drinking water by 100 parameters. In Kazakhstan, according to the requirements of the State Standard (GOST 2874-82), the quality of drinking water is determined by 30 normative indicators.

The main cause of water pollution is the discharge of untreated wastewater into water bodies. Water pollutants include:

* Housing and communal services.

* Industrial enterprises.

* The use of excessive amounts of mineral fertilizers in agriculture.

* Other types of national economy.

Pollution of rivers, lakes and other reservoirs is typical for the territory of the republic in regions where there is a large concentration of industrial enterprises, landfills and oil and gas fields are being developed.

If we take, for example, large rivers, the Irtysh is polluted by wastewater from the Ust-Kamenogorsk lead-zinc plant, the Ridder lead plant, the Berezovsky mine, and the Zyryanovsky plant. Therefore, the maximum permissible concentrations of lead, zinc, mercury and other heavy metals are exceeded several times in the Irtysh waters. The pools of Ili and Balkhash cannot be considered satisfactory in terms of water quality.

Relatively clean waters are considered in the basins of the Syrdarya, Shu, Talas, Karatal, Aksu, Lepsy, Tentek, and Koksu rivers. Among them, Syr Darya, Shu, Talas are polluted with chemicals as a result of the use of fertilizers in the fields and drainage works. Recently, the environmental situation of the republic has been worsened by the active development of oil fields in the Caspian Sea and in the surrounding regions, as well as the rising level of the Caspian Sea. A sharp jump in sea level has put out of action numerous drilling wells, oil storage facilities.

In addition, the Ural and Volga rivers pour a lot of toxic substances into the Caspian water.

In the South Kazakhstan region, the greatest pollution is observed on the Baidam and Sairam rivers.

Biological pollution of water resources is often found in the Aral Sea region and in Western Kazakhstan.
 

DianaGamazova

  • Kazakhstan E-gen Ambassador Diana Gamazova
 
 

3 Comments

Yuseon Mentor

  • Yuseon Mentor says :
    Hi Diana,
    This is your mentor Yuseon:D

    Thanks for bringing awareness to ecological problems. Due to the pollution that harmful chemicals are causing to water and the air, the atmosphere, the Ural and Volga rivers are getting polluted and biological pollution is occurring in a serious state.

    Air is shared all around the world, and so is the quality of it. We should all put interest in worldwide pollution problems and give help to overcome them.

    Thanks for the report!


    Posted 29-05-2021 15:18

Debbie Mentor

  • Debbie Mentor says :
    Hi Diana,

    This is your mentor Debbie!

    It??s a shame there??s so much harmful chemical compounds in the air in some cities in Kazakhstan. In the short term, breathing such bad air might not seem significant but there has been many research showing the long-term side effects of having heavy metals in the air.
    
Because air is something that we all share together, we should cherish it and ensure that it??s safe for everybody. Thank you for raising awareness on this issue! I hope that more of us may be more sensitive about air quality. :)

    Green Cheers,

    Debbie
    Posted 27-05-2021 19:10

Sandhya Adhikari

  • Sandhya Adhikari says :
    Hello Diana,
    Greeting from Nepal!!

    I do hope you are staying safe and doing great with your works,
    Thank you so much for sharing about Ecological problem in kazakhstan,

    So sad to go through your report!!! Hope the kazakhstan will have Sustainable ecosystem in the coming days..

    Keep sharing article on such an interesting topic,

    We are eager to read much more from you,,

    Green Cheers!!

    Yours,
    Sandhya
    Posted 15-05-2021 09:36

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